Abandonment: When a tenant defaults in the payment of rent and indicates by words or actions that they have vacated the premise.
Americans With Disabilities Act: A law passed by Congress in 1990 requiring any business or public facility to be accessible to everyone, including those with disabilities.
Arbitration: Using a neutral third party to resolve a dispute instead of going to court.
Certified Mail: A written verification from the Postal Service that the letter you mailed was delivered to its address. It requires a signature.
Common Area: Areas generally accessible to all residents or users, such as hallways, stairways, laundry rooms, recreational rooms and playgrounds.
Co-Signer: A person or persons in addition to the tenant, who agree to be responsible to pay rent and uphold conditions of the lease.
Consumer Report: A detailed report that provides personally identifiable information relating to one’s credit, character or lifestyle. The FCRA only covers reports prepared by a consumer reporting agency.
Consumer Reporting Agency: An entity that collects and disseminates information about consumers to be used for credit evaluation.
Credit Report: A report prepared by a credit reporting service that describes a person’s credit history for the last seven years.
Credit Score: A numerical value or a categorization derived from a statistical tool or modeling system used by a person who makes or arranges a loan to predict the likelihood of certain credit behaviors, including default.
Default: a tenant’s failure to do something that the law requires.
Default Judgment: A judgment issued by the court, without a hearing, when the tenant has failed to file a response to the landlord’s complaint.
Discrimination: Denying a person housing or stating that housing is not available because of a person’s race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, national origin, ancestry, age, disability, marital or familial status. Treating people differently could also be considered discrimination.
Equal Housing Opportunity: Laws that prohibit discrimination in housing on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, disability or familial status.
Eviction: A court proceeding for removing a tenant from a rental unit because the tenant violated the rental agreement or did not comply with a notice ending the tenancy.
Fair Credit Reporting Act: The Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA), as amended September 30, 1997, regulates consumer credit information gathering and dissemination. It dictates seven and ten year limits on how long negative information can be reported. The Act also provides a method for correcting erroneous information in a credit file. The 1997 amendment covers landlord tenant relationships and requires landlords to notify tenants if they have been rejected because of information in their credit file or references from previous landlords.
Fair Housing Act: The Fair Housing Act, as amended in 1988, prohibits discrimination in housing based on race, color, religion, national origin, sex, physical or mental handicap, or living with children, expect that housing for older persons may exclude children.
Fees: Money collected from tenants that will not be returned at the end of the tenancy, such as for applicant screening, cleaning, pets, etc.
Guest: a person who does not have the rights of a tenant but stays in/on the premises for a set period.
Inspection Checklist: A written checklist or statement specifically describing the condition and cleanliness of or existing damages to the premises and furnishings, such as walls, floors, countertops, carpets, drapes, furniture and appliances. The statement should be signed by both the landlord and the tenant.
Lead-based Paint Disclosure: A document that must be provided to all tenants before they enter into a rental agreement on properties built before 1978.
Lease: A written or oral contract between a landlord and a tenant that transfers the right to exclusive possession and the use of the landlord’s real property to the tenant for a specified period of time and for a stated consideration (rent).
Lessee: The tenant.
Lessor: The landlord.
Market Rent: The prevailing monthly rent for comparable units in a specific area.
Mediation: A way to resolve disputes by sitting down with an impartial person to reach a voluntary settlement. Medication involves no formal court procedures, and the mediator does not have the power to render a binding decision or force an agreement on the parties.
Month-to-Month: When premises are rented for an indefinite time, with monthly or other periodic rent reserved; or from period to period on which rent is payable and shall be terminated by written notice in accordance with the lease and law.
Normal Wear and Tear: Deterioration which occurs as a results of intended use, without negligence, carelessness, accident, misuse or abuse.
Rental Criteria: A set of criteria than an applicant must meet in order to qualify for tenancy. Landlords should apply criterion consistently and fairly from applicant to applicant to avoid Fair Housing issues.
Renter’s Insurance: Insurance protecting the tenant against property losses, and liability for claims or lawsuits filed by the landlord or others alleging that the tenant negligently injured another person or property.
Security Deposit: Monies paid to the landlord by a tenant as a deposit or security for performance of the tenant’s obligations in a lease or rental agreement. Each state enforces laws that must be followed if a landlord accepts a security deposit.
Sublet: An agreement between the original tenant and a new tenant by which the new tenant takes over the lease of a rental unit. Both the original tenant and the new tenant are still responsible to the landlord
Ten Day Notice to Comply with the Rental Agreement or Vacate: A form used when a tenant breaches the lease or rental agreement in ways other than failing to pay rent.
Three Day Notice to Pay Rent or Vacate: In most state, if a tenant defaults in payment of rent, this notice needs to be served to the tenant to begin eviction proceedings.
Tenant Screening: A process used primarily by landlords and property managers to evaluate prospective tenants to assess the likelihood the tenant will fulfill the terms of the lease or rental agreement. The process culminates in a decision as to whether to approve the applicant, approve the applicant conditionally (such as requiring an increased deposit or cosigner) or deny tenancy.